Schema therapy is one of the most recent psychotherapy approaches which was developed in the 80s by Jeffrey E. Young for use in treatment of personality disorders and chronic axis 1 disorders (anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, dysthymia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and pain disorder). such as when patients fail to respond or relapse after having been through other therapies (for example, traditional cognitive behavioral therapy).
Schema therapy is an integrative psychotherapy combining theory and techniques from previously existing therapies, it combines aspects of cognitive behavioral therapy, psychodynamic, psychoanalytic attachment and gestalt models, and considers itself to be a truly integrative model, and one that continues to evolve as its use internationally is growing.
The goal of schema therapy is to help patients meet their basic emotional needs by helping the patient learn how to:
There is a growing literature of outcome studies on schema therapy, where schema therapy has shown impressive results.
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS):
Transcranial Direct-Current Stimulation (tDCS), is a form of brain stimulation. tTDC is non-invasive, painless, safe and portable neuromodulation technique that produces immediate and lasting changes in brain function by delivering to targeted areas of the brain via electrodes on the scalp a low direct electric current. A fixed current between 1 and 2 mA is typically applied with a positive (anodal) or negative (cathodal) current via electrodes to a specific area. When the stimulator is turned on, current flows from the device to the electrode, and subsequently through the brain. Electrical stimulation performed in this way can be used to either “excite” (anode) or “inhibit” (cathode) neuronal activity at the target area.
During tDCS, most people will feel a mild tingling, prickling, itching, or warmth. These sensations are not painful and go away when stimulation stops. tDCS changes neuronal firing and by strengthening synaptic transmission between neurons by augmenting synaptic plasticity.
The side-effects of tDCS include temporary skin redness on the stimulation site, itching, and tingling. Other side-effects of tDCS include headache, nausea, and dizziness tDCS has much less side effects than medications.
Many applications of tDCS are currently being explored, suggesting possible treatments for: mild depression, schizophrenia, aphasia, addiction, epilepsy, chronic pain, attention and motor rehabilitation. tDCS is approved for medical treatment in much of the world including the European Union (it is not yet FDA approved). Several clinical trials have reported tDCS can treat mild depression and successfully reduces anxiety.
There are four domains of interpersonal problematics that are strongly correlated to depression:
Interpersonal psychotherapy is a structured approach to remedy one's problematics. It is: